This is a work of fiction created for the Twilight 2000 Role Playing Game. Original material © Dave Ross

The Americans

The United States Military Government


When the United States split into separate Military and Civilian Governments in the spring of 1999, both His Majesty’s Government and the US Military personnel based in the UK recognised the Military Government led by General Jonathan Cummings as the legitimate US Government.


The United States Navy


Located in London since the Second World War, Headquarters, US Naval Forces Europe (USNAVEUR) suffered heavy casualties in the November 1997 nuclear attack on the UK Capital, with the C in C amongst those either dead or missing. A number of personnel did survive however – some key staff had left London as a precautionary measure, whilst others had been on Thanksgiving leave – and the HQ reformed at the start of 1998 at the Royal Navy base in Portsmouth.


Whilst HQ USNAVEUR remains nominally operational at Portsmouth, the sinking of the majority of the US Navy's Atlantic and Mediterranean fleets coupled with the lack of effective communication with the handful of warships that remain mean that its activities are severely restricted, and its strength has been reduced to just over one hundred men and women. It is in sporadic radio contact with MilGov HQ in Colorado Springs and other elements of the US Armed Forces in Europe.

 

The CINC USNAVEUR is Admiral Thomas M Lowell, United States Navy. A graduate

of the US Naval Academy, Lowell has been based in the UK throughout the war, initially

as Deputy CINC with the rank of Vice Admiral, and then as CINC from January 1998

(the previous incumbent having been killed in the nuclear exchanges). He was promoted

to four star rank in the summer of 1998. In addition to his duties as CINC USNAVEUR,

as the senior US military officer in the UK Admiral Lowell also serves as the US Military

Government’s de facto Ambassador to the UK since the split between the United States’

Military and Civilian Governments.

 

In addition to the HQ USNAVEUR staff a small number of other US Navy personnel are

based at Portsmouth. Drawn from the crews of a number of US warships who found

themselves in the UK (most after having survived the sinking of their ships), these sailors

form skeleton crews for two US Warships,  the USS Normandy (CG60), a Ticonderoga

class cruiser that has been tied up alongside at Portsmouth since late 1998 after its

propulsion systems were crippled by a torpedo fired from a Soviet Akula class attack submarine, and the USS Stephen W Groves (FFG 29), an Oliver Hazard Perry class Frigate that was severely damaged by Soviet anti ship missiles in early 1998. The Normandy remains seaworthy, and most of its weapons systems are still operational, but it would need two of its gas turbines replaced before it could move under its own power once more. The Groves has suffered much heavier damage and would require several months of work in a fully equipped shipyard to be brought to a sea worthy condition. A small number of US Navy aircraft which survived the sinking of their carriers have also been formed into a Composite Naval Air Wing, which is based at RAF Greenham Common. The US Navy abandoned its submarine base at the Holyc Loch in Scotland in late 1998, at the same time HMG abandoned the neighbouring Royal Navy base at Faslane.


Portsmouth is also home to approximately forty US Marines, most of whom are also survivors of sunken ships. As well as providing security detachments for HQ US NAVEUR and the Ticonderoga and the Groves. the Marines provide US forces in Southern England with a Special Operations capability should one be required, and have occasionally been called upon to assist the DIA. A five man Marine detachment serves as a personal bodyguard to Admiral Lowell.














Admiral Thomas M Lowell

The United States Air Force


Long known as "The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier", the United Kingdom was home to a number of US Air Force units before the War. Whilst several Wings (most notably the A10 Thunderbolts of the 10th and 81st Tactical Fighter Wings) deployed to Forward Operating Bases in West Germany at the start of the War, their place was taken by Wings that arrived from the United States as part of pre existing plans to reinforce the United States Air Force Europe (one F16 Wing had initially been assigned to Aviano Air Force Base in Italy but was deployed to RAF Alconbury in Cambridgeshire instead when the Italian Government withdrew from NATO).


3rd Air Force currently has nearly 3000 personnel and over thirty operational fixed and rotary wing aircraft drawn from various branches of the US Armed Forces as well as additional numbers of non airworthy airframes that could be restored to flying condition with the appropriate parts. It is currently split between several air bases in East Anglia and southern England (a number of other bases have been abandoned during the course of the War). With no secure land corridor linking them, the two areas are effectively isolated from each other. All the US bases also host significant numbers of dependents and other American civilians, many of whom sought out the relative safety of the US airbases following the nuclear exchange. The Commanding General of the 3rd Air Force is Lieutenant General Jack Knox, who is based at RAF Mildenhall in Suffolk.


The men and women of the 3rd Air Force continue to see themselves as part of the US Armed Forces, however with a lack of fuel bringing all air operations in the European theatre to an end their direct participation in the war is effectively over, and their role has now changed to one of supporting local British authorities to maintain law and order.



Southern England


RAF Greenham Common


Greenham Common received notoriety during the 1980's when it was one of the sites selected to host USAF Gryphon and Pershing II cruise missiles equipped with nuclear warheads. The decision made Greenham Common a focus for anti nuclear protests and saw the establishment of what became known as the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp, a mainly female protest camp that was set up outside the base. The missiles were withdrawn in 1991 in accordance with the 1987 Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces treaty signed by the US President and the Soviet Premier and the base returned to RAF control (the peace camp lingered on until early 1997 when the Police used emergency powers granted to them to close it permanently as part of Operation ANTONINE, a move that caused some controversy in certain sections of the press).


Greenham Common was reactivated in mid 1996 as part of ongoing contingency planning, and in December it welcomed its new tenants, the F15E Strike Eagles of the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing, who relocated to the UK from Seymour Johnson AFB in North Carolina. As well as the 4th TFW, the base is currently home to remnants of the 20th Tactical Fighter Wing, which relocated from RAF Upper Heyford in Oxfordshire in early 1999, the US Air Force Reserve's 94th Tactical Airlift Wing, and the US Navy's Composite Air Wing. It still occasionally receives flights from both Germany and the continental United States, although these flights are extremely rare, operating only when there is an extreme need to move people or materials between the US and Europe (or vice versa).


Although they are independent of British command the US forces at Greenham Common cooperate closely with their British counterparts, and receive a supply of aviation fuel from the British, in return for which the American fighters assist the RAF in defending southern England airspace. A legacy of when it was home to the cruise missiles, it has six bunkers which were designed to withstand an air bursting nuclear explosion above the base.


The base is also home to the DIA’s United Kingdom Headquarters, under the command of Brigadier General Richard Rossi, United States Air Force.


RAF Greenham Common

Location: 4 miles South East of Newbury, Berkshire

Strength: 1100 men, 8 x M750

Aircraft: 3 x F15E Strike Eagle, 1 x EF111 Raven, 2 x F14A Tomcat, 2 x F18C Hornet, 1 x F18D Hornet, 1 x A6E Intruder, 1 x C130 Hercules, 1 x C20A Gulfstream III, 2 x C23A Sherpa

Helicopters: 1 x UH60A Blackhawk, 1 x UH1N Huey

Elements, 20th Tactical Fighter Wing  

Elements 4th Tactical Fighter Wing

Composite Carrier Air Wing, US Navy

Elements, 94th Tactical Airlift Wing, US Air Force Reserve

20th Security Police Squadron

4th Security Police Squadron



East Anglia


3rd Air Force units in the East Anglia area are stationed at three airbases – RAF Mildenhall and RAF Lakenheath, both of which are near the town of Bury St Edmunds, and RAF Coltishall in Norwich. All three bases suffered heavy damage from Soviet conventional attacks during the opening phases of the war, but have remained operational.


A number of British Territorial troops and RAF personnel are also based in the region. These forces are acting autonomously from HMG, following the orders of local commanders only, and have to rely on locally produced alcohol based fuels. Because of this most aircraft in the region have been effectively grounded; the Americans still have very limited supplies of aviation fuel, but are extremely selective about how and when these supplies are used.


The US airmen assist their British counterparts to maintain order in the region, with surplus aircrew and ground personnel formed into a number of provisional security units who actively patrol the areas around their bases. These patrols are well armed and well equipped by local standards, operating Humvees and M750 armoured cars. In exchange for their assistance, the Americans receive supplies of food, water, and other essential items from the local authorities.


The East Anglians have come to rely on the additional manpower and firepower that the US forces provide, and the local leadership in Norwich is well aware that any American withdrawal from the area would seriously jeopardise the stability of their enclave.


RAF Mildenhall


As well as being 3rd Air Force’s Headquarters, a number of command and control and reconnaissance units were based at Mildenhall at the start of the war. It also served as a hub for casualty movement throughout 1997, with the 11th Aeromedical Airlift Squadron flying casualties from throughout the European theatre to medical facilities in the Continental United States. A small number of aircraft remain at Mildenhall , but the base has been chronically affected by lack of  fuel (most of the aircraft are large four engine jets which require significant amounts of fuel).


Mildenhall also has a single operational SR71 Blackbird of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing. The special JP7 fuel that the Blackbird uses is extremely scarce however, so the aircraft is retained as a strategic asset, with any proposed operations requiring the authorisation of the Joint Chiefs in Colorado Springs. A small DIA detachment is also based at Mildenhall, under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Lucas Starling, United States Army. On rare occasions helicopters can be heard taking to the air, usually at night, and speculation is rife about what the DIA are up to.


RAF Mildenhall

Location: 5 miles North West of Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk

Strength: 800 men, 6 x M750

Aircraft: 1 x SR71 Blackbird, 1 x KC135 Stratotanker, 1 x EC135, 2 x C130, 1 x C141 Starlifter, 1 x C9A Nightingale

Helicopters: 2 x UH60A Blackhawk, 1 x CH53E Super Stallion, 1 x MH6C Cayuse

Headquarters, 3rd United States Air Force  

Detachment 4, 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing

Elements, 306th Strategic Wing

Elements, 313th Tactical Airlift Group

Elements, 513th  Airborne Command & Control Wing

Elements, 11th Aeromedical Airlift Squadron  

513th Security Police Squadron

306th Security Police Squadron (Provisional) (formed from elements of the 306th Strategic Wing)



RAF Lakenheath


Lakenheath was the pre war home of the 48th “Statue of Liberty” Tactical Fighter Wing, which had traded its F111F's for F15E Strike Eagles in 1992. During the course of the War the 48th has been joined by several other units as other bases in the area were evacuated, and Lakenheath is currently home to a number of different aircraft, including F15E's of the 27th Tactical Fighter Wing, an F117A Nighthawk and several single seat F15A/C's of the 49th Tactical Fighter Wing (both the 27th and 49th deployed to the UK from US bases at the start of the War), and the F16's of the 527th Tactical Fighter Squadron, a pre War USAF Squadron based at Bentwaters where it operated in an Aggressor role (both Bentwaters and Woodbridge were evacuated in the wake of the nuclear strikes on Felixstowe and Harwich). A handful of F16's from the Royal Dutch Air Force also made their way to Lakenheath after their bases in Holland were overrun by Franco - Belgian forces in 1998. Several have subsequently been lost in action against the French, but two remain operational and have become a de facto part of the 527th. A single USMC AV8B Harrier jump jet also found its way to Lakenheath in 1998 and has remained there.


A small number of B61 nuclear weapons are still stored at Lakenheath; these weapons are guarded by the 555th Special Weapons Security Police Squadron, a pre War special unit of the US Air Force Air Police responsible for the safe custody of US nuclear weapons. Recognisable by their distinctive black berets, (as opposed to the blue worn by regular Air Police), the fifty men and women of the “Triple Nickel” have all been through rigorous Special Forces style training. The 555th is commanded by Major Stephanie Kirk, USAF.


Mildenhall and Lakenheath both cooperate closely with British personnel stationed at the RAF base at Honington.


RAF Lakenheath

Location: 5 miles North West of Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk

Strength: 950 men, 4 x M750

Aircraft: 4 x F15E Strike Eagle, 2 x F15C Eagle, 1x F15A Eagle, 2 x F16C Fighting Falcon, 1 x F117A Nighthawk, 1 x AV8B Harrier, 2 x F16A Fighting Falcon (RNLAF)

Elements, 27th Tactical Fighter Wing

Elements 48th “Statue of Liberty” Tactical Fighter Wing

Elements, 49th Tactical Fighter Wing

527th Tactical Fighter Squadron

            o Includes elements of 311th and 313th Squadrons, Royal Netherlands Air Force

48th Security Police Squadron

555th Special Security Police Squadron       

648th Security Police Squadron



RAF Coltishall


Unlike Mildenhall and Lakenheath, which were both operated exclusively by the Americans, the USAF shared Coltishall with the Royal Air Force, with the Nebraska Air National Guard’s RF4C’s arriving at the end of 1996. By cannibalising other airframes, the National Guardsmen have managed to keep a single RF4C Phantom operational. The Americans work closely with RAF and Territorial Army personnel remain based at Coltishall, taking part in joint patrols of Norwich.


RAF Coltishall

Location: Norwich

Strength: 150 men

Aircraft: 1 x RF4C

Elements, 155th Tactical Recon Group (NE ANG)




Other Bases


Small groups of US personnel can be found at several of HMG’s enclaves in the UK; Catterick garrison in Yorkshire hosts personnel who evacuated the USAF monitoring station at Menwith Hill at the start of 1998, whilst RAF bases in northern Scotland and Wales are home to the remnants of US Navy maritime patrol squadrons and a US Air Force Reserve Aerial Refuelling Wing. Out of contact with other US forces in the UK, these groups have been integrated into British forces until such times as they can re-establish contact with their own higher command.


A small number of US airmen remain at the base at Alconbury in Cambridgeshire, although they are no longer following orders from any higher headquarters and have joined forces with personnel from the Royal Air Force base at Wyton, ten miles away, to form a local defence force for the town of Huntingdon. With the A10’s originally based there deployed to Germany at the start of the war, Alconbury was a base for TR1 reconnaissance aircraft, two of which remain in an airworthy condition, as do several F16’s of the 347th TFW.


The USAF has abandoned a number of bases for various reasons. RAF Bentwaters and RAF Woodbridge both suffered heavy damage in the nuclear strike aimed at Felixstowe and Harwich ports, and both bases were subsequently evacuated at the start of 1998, with their surviving units dispersed to other bases. RAF Upper Heyford in Oxfordshire and RAF Fairford in Gloucestershire were both evacuated in early 1999 as the security situation in their respective areas deteriorated (Fairford was a B52 bomber base and had already effectively ended flight operations some months previously in any event, with the last BUFF flight from the base taking place in March 1998). The communications and signal intelligence base at RAF Chicksands ceased operating after the nuclear strikes on nearby Bedford and Luton and was abandoned in January 1998.


Inevitably, a number of American personnel have also turned marauder particularly in the areas around these abandoned bases.


The Defence Intelligence Agency














The Mildenhall base is primarily responsible for coordinating the agency’s activities in the Low Countries, controlling three DIA officers and a number of locally recruited agents in Belgium and the Netherlands (both the unoccupied part and the area controlled by the French). To this end, while they are extremely rare, some flights do take place between Mildenhall and the Continent, mainly by helicopter and usually at night.


Whilst they would not wish to overtly undertake any operations that would bring them into conflict with their British hosts and allies, Brigadier General Rossi and the men and women under his command are loyal to the United States and their key focus will always be the interests and welfare of their own country. Consequently, the British are not aware of all of the DIA’s activities in the UK. In particular, the DIA has a small number of officers operating undercover in the UK without the knowledge of MI5. These officers control a small network of local agents, British nationals who supply them with information in exchange for payment (generally made in the form of goods).


DIA officers operating within HMG’s borders and known to MI5 have been issued with the necessary permits to carry firearms, and will usually be armed with a US Military issue sidearm (generally a 9mm Beretta or a Colt 45). Those officers operating undercover may or may not be armed dependent on the situation – however when unarmed they will generally have a weapon cached close at hand. Should the situation arise all have access to heavier weaponry, including M16’s, M249’s and M203 Grenade Launchers. Those operating outwith the territory controlled by HMG (including the team at Mildenhall) are free to arm themselves as they please, and again usually carry standard US issue weapons.


The Intelligence Agency of the United States Military Government, the DIA maintains a sizeable station at RAF Greenham Common, with a smaller sub unit based at RAF Mildenhall. Both stations are under the overall command of Brigadier General Richard Rossi, United States Air Force. The DIA enjoys an extremely close relationship with MI5, and as well as having an MI5 liaison officer based at Greenham Common (who has a DIA counterpart at the Security Service’s headquarters at Winchester), the DIA receives limited support from the British – primarily supplies of diesel and aviation fuel.


Greenham Common controls all DIA activities in the UK. On the whole these activities are limited to intelligence gathering, often in liaison with their British counterparts and the intelligence that they obtain is often shared with the British before being relayed back to DIA HQ in Colorado Springs via a HF radio net.

The United States Civilian Government



The Central Intelligence Agency


        

 












The sole officer in Scotland is Megan Gallagher. Part of the CIA team based at the London Embassy before the nuclear exchanges, Gallagher took leave in November 1997 to spend the Thanksgiving weekend with friends in Scotland. Unable to re establish contact with Langley or any US Diplomatic or Military personnel after the nuclear exchanges, she decided to remain in Perth, and currently works in a local bar. In mid 1999 she managed to make radio contact with Scott Saunders, and she is currently providing him with regular reports on the activities of Alex Stewart’s Government. Whilst it is common knowledge in Perth that she was on the staff of the US Embassy, she has stuck constantly to her story that she was a Cultural Attaché, and the fact that she is a CIA Operative remains a secret. In the last eighteen months she has successfully recruited three local agents, who provide her with a range of insights into the future intentions of the new Scottish Republic and its leadership. Of particular interest to the Americans is the emerging relationship between the Scots and the French. Recently Gallagher has heard rumours about the existence of an American reconnaissance aircraft at the abandoned RAF base at Machrihanish on the west coast of Scotland; while she has passed the information on to Saunders, the Agency currently lacks the resources to take any action to follow up on this.


As HMG does not recognise the US Civilian Government, CIA officers operating in the UK could be executed as spies if caught by the British; in practice however MI5 are content to turn a blind eye to the Agency's activities so long as they are not deemed to be acting against British interests. When operating within secure areas (i.e. territory controlled by HMG or the Republic of Scotland) CIA officers generally go unarmed to avoid attracting undue attention, although they have access to caches of concealed weapons hidden in several different locations.   


The Intelligence organisation of the United States Civilian Government, the CIA still retains a limited presence in the UK, with a small number of officers based in southern England and a single officer in Scotland, all of whom operate undercover. Their activities are generally concentrated on gathering intelligence on the situation in the UK much of which comes from a network of locally recruited agents, however they currently have no radio link with the United States, so are unable to pass information back to the Agency's headquarters in Nebraska. The team in England is under the leadership of Scott Saunders, a thirty one year old who graduated from Yale summa cum laude in 1991. Saunders arrived in the UK in 1998 and is currently based in Maidstone, masquerading as a former Stock Exchange trader.